Rangelands are among the most valuable natural resources of Greece, both in terms of area, and contribution to the national economy and culture as well, while the development prospects are substantial. As a result, the need for thorough consideration of these valuable ecosystems is essential. The science that deals with rangelands is called Rangeland Science (RS). The RS as applied science is divided into two major branches: the Rangeland Ecology, which offers the principles of ecological operation of rangeland ecosystems and Rangeland Management, which in light of ecological principles and the needs of modern man provides technical solutions for their sustainable management. Accordingly, this book hopes to cover both branches of RS. In particular, the first part analyzes the basic principles of Rangeland Ecology and the second develops the applied aspect of Rangeland Management. Emphasis is given to modern approaches in applied case studies.